A cap and phase-down of F-Gases is the most cost-effective measure to reduce direct emissions from heating and cooling

Brussels – October 2012: Fluorinated gases currently contribute 1.1% to global greenhouse gas emissions, and in the EU the current provisions of the F-Gas Regulation and the Directive on Mobile Air-Conditioning (MAC) are expected to reduce direct F-Gas emissions by more than 40% in 2030.


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A cap and phase-down of F-Gases is the most cost-effective measure to reduce direct emissions from heating and cooling

A cap and phase-down of F-Gases is the most cost-effective measure to reduce direct emissions from heating and cooling

Andrea Voigt, President

EPEE European Partnership for Energy and the Environment

Fluorinated gases currently contribute 1.1% to global greenhouse gas emissions, and in the EU the current provisions of the F-Gas Regulation and the Directive on Mobile Air-Conditioning (MAC) are expected to reduce direct F-Gas emissions by more than 40% in 2030.

 

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Minichannel Devices for Low Charge Refrigerating Systems

Davide Del Col, Marco Azzolin, Stefano Bortolin, Alberto Cavallini
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale - University of Padova
Via Venezia, 1 – I 35131 Padova, Italy

Abstract: The worldwide alert about global warming has led to an increasing interest in new HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) technologies with low environmental impact. When considering this impact, both an indirect effect due to the energy consumption, and the consequent carbon dioxide emissions caused by the electricity production process, and a direct effect due to leakages of refrigerant must be taken into account. A way to achieve high heat transfer rates in compact heat exchangers is using minichannel technology. In addition to high heat flux applications, minichannels are viewed as appropriate options to reduce the charge of refrigerant, minimize the problems of release of potentially hazardous fluids in the atmosphere and allow to use natural fluids such as hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide.

Keywords: minichannels, charge reduction, void fraction, heat exchangers

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A Numerical Analysis of an Active Magnetic Multilayer Regenerative Cycle

C. APREA , A. GRECO , A. MAIORINO
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Università di Salerno, Salerno, Italia

1. Introduction

Magnetic refrigeration is an emerging technology based on the magneto-caloric effect in solid-state refrigerants [1,2]. In the case of ferromagnetic materials the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) is a warming as the magnetic moments of the atom are aligned by the application of a magnetic field, and the corresponding cooling upon removal of the magnetic field.

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Nanofluids: A new generation of high efficiency fluids

Sergio BOBBO, Laura COLLA, Laura FEDELE
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per le Tecnologie della Costruzione, Padova, Italy.

1. INTRODUCTION

Nanofluids are a new class of fluids which promise to significantly enhance thermal, rheological and tribological properties of technological fluids. They are obtained by dispersing solid nanoparticles (diameter <100 nm) made by metallic oxides, metals, carbon nanotubes ecc. in common fluids such as water, glycol, oils and refrigerants.

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CO2 Trans-Critical Compressors

Officine Mario Dorin S.p.A.
Giacomo Pisano, Mauro Dallai

ABSTRACT
Carbon dioxide (R744 - CO2) is nowadays considered one of the most attractive long term solutions for commercial and industrial refrigeration applications, as well as for hot water heat pumps. This refrigerant thermodynamic characteristics lead to somewhat high discharge temperatures (up to 200°C), this having a significant impact on both oil temperature, thus affecting its lubricity, and refrigerant suction temperature and density, thus affecting compressor volumetric and isentropic efficiency. Therefore, improving discharge gas heat rejection it is possible to increase both compressor reliability and efficiency.

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Nanotechnology in new magnetic heating, refrigeration and energy conversion devices

Nanotechnology in new magnetic heating, refrigeration

and energy conversion devices

 P.W. EGOLF(a), L. GRAVIER(b), M. CROCI(b)

University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland

(a)Institute of Thermal Sciences and Engineering,

(b)Institute of Micro and Nanotechniques

Research on magnetic heating and energy conversion is still very rare, but starts to develop more and more. Substantial efforts are occurring in the domain of domestic magnetic refrigeration, with devices having power consumptions from 50 up to 100 Watt. Up-to-present there have been built approximately forty such prototypes and first specialized industrial companies start to discuss production lines for their magnetic refrigerators, which are predicted to show higher performance than their conventional counterparts. 

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Contractors' Added Value in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

IIR-United Nations UNEP - ATF - CSG
14th European Conference
10-11 June 2011, Milan
"The Latest Technology in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration"
Presentation by Graeme Fox, President of AREA

AREA, the Air Conditioning and Refrigeration European contractors' Association has been in existence since 1988 and currently is made up of 21 members from 18 different European countries. AREA is essentially an Association of Associations, meaning that our members are themselves trade associations.

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NATURAL REFRIGERANTS - HEAT PUMPS

NATURAL REFRIGERANTS

HEAT PUMPS

Jan Boone

MAYEKAWA EUROPE S.A.,Leuvensesteenweg 605, 1930 Zaventem, Belgium

Tel. 32-2-757-9075, Fax. 32-2-757-9023, e-mail : This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

LINE-UP OF ‘NATURAL 5’.

Mayekawa was founded in 1924 and is to-day one of the world’s largest industrial refrigeration companies. It actively promotes the ‘NATURAL 5’ refrigerants, including ammonia, CO2, hydrocarbon gasses, air and water. Mayekawa is active in ammonia compressors for more than 85 years, for hydrocarbons and CO2 for more than 40 years.

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Contractors: training the craftsman in the safe use of low GWP energy efficient refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pump systems

AREA article for the International Special Issue

July 2012

Contractors: training the craftsman in the safe use of low GWP energy efficient refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pump systems

AREA (www.area-eur.be) is the European organisation of refrigeration, air-conditioning and heat pumps (RACHP) contractors. Established in 1988, AREA voices the interests of 21 national members from 17 European countries, representing more than 9,000 companies across Europe (mainly small to medium sized enterprises), employing around 125,000 people and with an annual turnover in the region of € 20 billion.

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Natural Refrigerants: Secondary brine ice slurry

Jan Boone, Mayekawa Europe, Zaventem, Belgium

LINE-UP OF 'NATURAL 5'.
Mayekawa was founded in 1924 and is to-day one of the world's largest industrial refrigeration companies. It actively promotes the 'NATURAL 5' refrigerants, including ammonia, CO2, hydrocarbon gases, air and water. Mayekawa is active in ammonia compressors for more than 85 years, for hydrocarbons and CO2 for more than 40 years.

The 'NATURAL 5' refrigerants cover the full application range -100°C/+100°C from cryogenics, freezing, cooling, air conditioning up to heating.

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Energy Saving and Ecosustainability: Industrially Achievable Goals

In the large retail sector, the focus is increasingly on the optimisation, management and monitoring of the systems installed. In particular, the running costs of refrigeration systems account for over 50% of total energy consumption, as highlighted by many studies on supermarket management. Where and how to save, how to optimise, how to control and manage the loads are consequently important issues for both the industry and end consumers. As will be shown, current technology for the large retail sector that can ensure substantial energy saving, as well as environmental compatibility (direct and indirect) is industrially available, both in terms of accessibility and reliability and, above all, return on investment.

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New Components and Equipment in Relation to Energy Saving and Environmental Issues: Equipment, energy and environmental issues

SUMMARY
Energy consumption is a major concern for both governments and consumers.
Developing technologies and equipment that minimize energy consumption without lowering well-being is an important stake for the next decade.

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Energy Storage: The Parisian District Cooling System

A. Di Cecca, F. Benassis, P. Poeuf
Climespace - GDF Suez, Paris

Abstract
Thermal energy storage is an important contribution to the rational energy use and allows reducing the environmental footprint helping to comply with environmental constraints. Decoupling the energy use from the supply, cool storage systems integrated in district cooling allows significant reduction in installed cooling capacity.

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New Generation CS.3 Compact Screw Compressors: Improved energy efficiency at full and part load operation

1. Abstract
The performance adaptation of cooling and air conditioning systems to the actual requirement has always been an important challenge in refrigeration technology. Various control concepts and technologies for capacity control are already in use today. Until now, the focus has rather been on the reliable controllability of systems, and hardly on the efficient part load operation. However, in times of steadily rising energy prices, this is now differently appraised.

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EPBD recast: energy monitoring and HVAC system mandatory Inspection. Findings from two IEE funded projects

M.Masoero, C.Silvi, J.Toniolo
Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino
 

Introduction

Air conditioning systems can account for up to 50% of the energy used in a building, and are therefore specifically targeted in the new legislation. The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) was established in 2002 (Directive 2002/91/CE). Article 14 of the 2010 EPBD recast, which is aimed at reducing CO2 emissions within the building sector, requires a regular inspection for HVAC systems with more than 12 kW cooling capacity. However, so far only a few Member States have transferred this prescription into national law.

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New Refrigerants, Replacement of R22 and New Equipment

Louis Lucas
Honorary President of AFF (Association Française du Froid)
Honorary Director of IIR (International Institute of refrigeration),
President of the CNF (Conseil National du Froid- France)

Summary
For new installations as well as for R22 replacement, HFCs are the most common substitutes. NH3 and other "natural refrigerants" as well as alternative technologies are available for some refrigeration uses. There is a strong move in favour of a phase-down of HFCs. Their future depends on how much recovery and containment are implemented. It is in the interests of both consumers and companies to adopt a "responsible behaviour", based on the current EU regulations and this approach makes it possible to choose inexpensive and energy efficient alternatives. Regulations must be accompanied by inspections and sanctions.

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Global Warming: A key issue for refrigeration and air conditioning

Didier Coulomb
Director, International Institute of Refrigeration

Introduction

Refrigeration, including air conditioning, is necessary for life and will continue to expand worldwide. Its impact on environment is huge, even if refrigeration technologies can also be part of solutions for mitigating global warming (new sources of energy, heat pumps...). Many efforts have already been made. However, reduction in CO2 emissions and fluorinated gas emissions are challenges to be addressed on an ongoing basis.

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R1234yf and Lubricants: An update about recent developments

Claudio Zilio
Dipartimento di Fisica Tecnica – Università degli Studi di Padova

Introduction
Over the last several years, much research and development effort has been focused on potential refrigerants possessing low Global Warming Potentials (GWPs). The catalyst for much of this effort can be attributed to European regulations regarding the use of R134a in automotive applications.

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Ground Source Heat Pumps

1. INTRODUCTION
Ground source heat pumps (GSHP) gain importance world-wide with respect to energy efficiency in heating and cooling operation. The ground acting as a seasonal store offers the possibility of damping the effects of the outside air temperature fluctuations, in colder climates it enables monovalent heating operation of the heat pump, and for utilities it is - compared with outside air operated heat pumps - a tool for demand side management measures.

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Refrigerant Options in Stationary AC&R Systems

INTRODUCTION
Due to a growing global concern about the increasing impact of mankind on the warming of our atmosphere, the refrigerants that have been used as the prime working fluids for air conditioning and refrigeration applications have once more come under scrutiny. Many regulators around the world are now focusing on the direct global warming impact of these fluids.

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Heat Pump performance boost with the use of solar collectors

Professor Tariq Muneer, Edinburgh Napier University
Aymeric Girard a* , Lorraine McCauley b

a* Faculty of Engineering and Sciences, University Adolfo Ibanez, Av. Padre Hurtado 750, Altos del Sporting. Viña del Mar, Chile

b School of Engineering and Built Environment, Edinburgh Napier University,10 Colinton Rd. Edinburgh, EH10 5DT, UK

The need for an energy performance improvement in Ground-Source Heat Pumps (GSHP) for the residential and commercial sectors has historically been identified as a result of regular project work undertaken by European Energy Centre. It is clear that there is a dearth of in-situ measured data that is available on COP of GSHP and their equivalent performance. In order to achieve higher heat pump COP through the use of roof-top thermal solar collectors, the Edinburgh Napier University team has been commissioned to undertake research and investigate the performance of such systems. Heretofore such systems shall be called as ‘Solar-assisted Ground-Source Heat Pumps (SGSHP)’. Figure 1 provides an illustration of a SGSHP system.

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Retrofitting existing heating systems with water-water heat pumps fed by low temperature water networks

Retrofitting existing heating systems with water-water heat pumps fed by low temperature water networks

 Marco Masoero, Chiara Silvi, Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino

Gianfranco Pellegrini, AREA Science Park, Trieste

Abstract

The paper presents a water-water high temperature heat pump system, coupled to a district piping network distributing low temperature water. The heat pumps utilize, as low temperature heat source, water distributed with a pipework which is very similar to conventional district heating one. Similarly to district heating sub stations, the pipework feeds heat pumps installed in the building plant room, replacing the boilers which are part of the existing centralized heating and SHW production (if present) system. An application for the city of Torino is presented, including energy, environmental and economic analyses.

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Heat Pumps

Hermann Halozan
Institute of Thermal Engineering, Graz University of Technology

1. INTRODUCTION

The old aim of governments was to supply their country with sufficient low-cost energy to keep the economy growing. But in the meantime we have some more problems: the one problem is that energy becomes more and more expensive, the second problem is climate change, and all industrialised countries, which have signed or not yet signed the Kyoto Agreement, have to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions, mainly CO2 from burning fossil fuels. Heat pumps offer the possibility of reducing energy consumption significantly, mainly in the building sector, but also in industry.

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Solar Cooling With Small Size Chiller: State of the art

Abstract
Absorption refrigerating machines represent an interesting alternative to compression machines, especially when waste heat or heat produced by solar energy is available; the market is proposing small-size absorption machines especially designed for air conditioning in residential buildings. A survey of small-size absorption refrigerators is presented, covering a range of chilling power between 5 and 17 kW and highlighting the productivity of machines.

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Heat Pumps Reducing Losses – Increasing Efficiency

Heat Pumps

Reducing Losses – Increasing Efficiency

Hermann Halozan

Institute of Thermal Engineering, Graz University of Technology,

Inffeldgasse 25 / B, A-8010 Graz, Austria 

1. INTRODUCTION

European governments have committed to significantly reduce the carbon footprint of new and existing homes. It is therefore generally accepted that: increasing the uptake of renewable energy systems and improving the thermal performance of both new and existing homes is critical if Europe is to achieve ambitious emission targets.

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Solar heating and cooling systems: a POSITIVE contribute to energy and environmental issues

SCENERY OF THE WORK INTO XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE:

XV European Conference organized by Centro Studi Galileo, second session: "NEW COMPONENTS AND EQUIPMENT IN RELATION TO NEW REFRIGERANTS, ENERGY SAVING AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES RESULTS AND UPDATES IN NEW SYSTEMS”. 

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Intelligent Liquid Distribution System Saves Energy: Roadblocks by current standardisation and legislation

Stefan Pietrek
Global Application Director, Danfoss A/S

Abstract:
The paper explains one out of many examples for innovative thinking to increase the energy efficiency of air-conditioning systems - the so called Ecoflow™ electronic expansion device system- and leads to first thoughts about the roadblocks in current user behaviours and standards preventing the fast market introduction.

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Why Do We Need to Innovate?

ABSTRACT

This paper explores the developments that have been achieved in the last 20 years and assesses the progress that has been made. It challenges some traditional beliefs about the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry, using some recent reports and research papers to develop an alternative view of the situation. It looks to the future and outlines a possible development scenario.

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LAST DEVELOPMENTS OF SOLAR ASSISTED HEAT PUMPS IN ITALY

LAST DEVELOPMENTS OF SOLAR ASSISTED HEAT PUMPS IN ITALY

Luca A. Tagliafico, F. Valsuani

University of Genoa

DIME / TEC

Division of Thermal engineering and Environmental Conditioning

Via all’Opera Pia 15/a – 16145 Genoa Italy

        Tel. 010 3532880 – fax 010 311870 – e-mail tgl@ditec.unige

 

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